According to statistics, the average per mu of crop fertilizer in China is 21.9 kg, much higher than the world average (8 kg per mu), which is 2.6 times that of the United States and 2.5 times that of the European Union.
The national efforts to develop green agriculture for some enterprises committed to sustainable development of agriculture bring practical opportunities.
The goal of zero growth in fertiliser and pesticides, which began in 2015 and has been achieved by the end of 2017, is three years ahead of schedule.
When agriculture becomes the biggest source of pollution in China, China is determined to fight the battle against non-point agricultural pollution. In agricultural NongCunBu recently at a news conference, NongCunBu agricultural science and technology education department director of xi-yuan liao, according to the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control work is made solid progress, agriculture concept of green development is becoming more and more thorough popular feeling, system of "four beams eight columns" has been built, a batch of sample pattern, more "green" agricultural development way.
As of 2017, the fertilizer utilization rate of three major grain crops in China, namely rice, corn and wheat, was 37.8 percent, and the pesticide utilization rate was 38.8 percent. The zero growth of fertilizer and pesticide was realized three years ahead of schedule. The pollution prevention and control of large-scale farming has been promoted in an orderly way. The utilization pattern of straw mainly for agricultural use and diversified development was basically formed, and the agricultural film recycling system and its restrictive ability were strengthened constantly.
Chinese agriculture 'curse'
In 2015, the Chinese government proposed to achieve the goal of "one control, two reduction and three basic tasks" by 2020 to control the total amount of agricultural water, reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and make basic use of the mulch of livestock and poultry dung. In 2017, it further focused on key areas and key links, and launched five major actions for agricultural green development, such as the recycling of livestock and poultry manure, the replacement of fertilizers by organic fertilizers of fruit and vegetable tea, crop straw treatment in northeast China, agricultural membrane recycling and aquatic biological conservation actions focusing on the Yangtze river.
Fertilizer, which originated in Europe, is a product of the industrial revolution. Thanks to the application of chemical fertilizers, agriculture developed greatly, and the population of Europe doubled and became the center of the world economy.
Before and after the reform and opening up, the fertilizer that enters China becomes a kind of strategic resource, use national strength to produce for a time. Considering that the foundation of cultivated land is relatively low in China, the application of chemical fertilizer contributes a lot to increasing grain yield. Some industry figures say that about 40%.
Application is more to increase yield of grain contribution. Some industry figures say that about 40%.
Pesticide is also an indispensable means of production for agricultural production in China. From 2001 to 2013, China's pesticide production increased from 696,000 tons to 3.19 million tons, with an annual compound growth rate of 13.53 percent, according to the national bureau of statistics. This is in line with the trend of grain output increasing in tandem. Considering the climate change and the change of farming system, the crop diseases and insect pests show a tendency of multiple occurrence, frequent occurrence and recurrence. If diseases and pests are left unchecked, there will be a major reduction in production. It is undeniable that pesticides are still the most effective way to increase production at present.
According to a paper on China's pesticide and food security published by zhou xiying, senior agronomist at the pesticide inspection institute of the ministry of agriculture and rural affairs, China can recover about 200 billion jin of grain loss every year through plant protection measures such as pest, cordyceps and rodent pests, accounting for more than 15% of the total output, equivalent to an increase of more than 100 million mu of farmland.
It is worth noting that in the past extensive agricultural development model, excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides has become the "curse" of Chinese agriculture.
At present, China accounts for more than one-third of the world's total fertilizer production and consumption, ranking first in the world.
According to statistics, the average per mu of crop fertilizer in China is 21.9 kg, much higher than the world average (8 kg per mu), which is 2.6 times that of the United States and 2.5 times that of the European Union. In the eastern economic developed areas, the lower reaches of the Yangtze river and the suburbs of the city, fertilizer application is relatively high, and excessive application of economic horticultural crops with high added value such as vegetables and fruit trees is relatively common.
However, the total nutrient of organic fertilizer resources is about 70 million tons, and the actual utilization is less than 40%. Among them, the rate of livestock manure nutrients returning to the field is about 50%, and the rate of crop straw nutrients returning to the field is about 35%.
In addition, the "triple three light" problem of heavy fertilizer, light organic fertilizer, heavy large amount of element fertilizer, light medium and micro element fertilizer, heavy nitrogen fertilizer and light phosphate fertilizer is prominent. The traditional artificial fertilizing method still takes the dominant position, the phenomenon of fertilizer spreading and surface application is relatively common, and the mechanical fertilization only takes about 30% of the planting area of the main crops.
Heavy use of chemical fertilizers also leads to a series of negative consequences. For example, excessive use of chemical fertilizers not only wastes non-renewable energy and resources such as coal and phosphate, but also increases domestic dependence on sulfur and potassium. Also, increased greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural sources and river pollution.
In terms of pesticides, China, as the world's largest producer and user of pesticides, USES 2.5 to 5 times more chemical pesticides per unit area than the world average. High pesticide dosage and low utilization rate have become a prominent problem in agricultural disease and insect control.
Although pesticides can prevent cordyceps sinensis rodent infestation, promote agricultural production increase and increase farmers' income, unscientific and unreasonable use of chemical pesticides by agricultural practitioners who lack professional training directly leads to pesticide abuse, increased pest resistance and high prevention and control costs. Excessive pesticide residues and agricultural ecological pollution directly threaten the quality and ecological environment of agricultural products.
Statistics in the industry show that the utilization rate of pesticides in developed countries in Europe and America is between 50% and 60%, which is 15 to 25 percentage points higher than that in China. Fertilizer use rates in the United States reached 50 percent and in major European countries reached 65 percent, also 15 to 30 percentage points higher than in China.
Lose weight throughout the industry
At present, the state vigorously promote energy conservation and emissions reduction, environmental protection and agricultural sustainable development, and successively promulgated the "atmosphere of article 10, article 10 of" water ", 10 "soil", "about promoting the development of the chemical fertilizer industry transformation guidance", "to fertiliser use zero growth in 2020 action plan and related policy, the measures of industry transformation and upgrading of green development and put forward the pressing demands.
"Controlling quantity and improving effect" has become a necessary measure for zero growth of fertilizers and pesticides.
From "fertilizer is a treasure" in the past to "fertilizer is a grass" today, industry insiders say that if reforms are not carried out, fertilizer will become "a rat across the street, everyone is beating".
So, whole industry begins to reduce "fat". In terms of products, we will carry out zero-growth actions to guide the green development of agriculture. We will focus on developing new types of products, such as highly efficient slow-release fertilizers, highly effective low-toxicity and low residue pesticides, and bio-fertilizer pesticides, and speed up the promotion of new types of high-efficiency fertilizers and pesticides. In terms of technology, it is necessary to popularize such technologies as deep application of machinery, mechanical application of fertilizer, simultaneous planting of planting fertilizer, and integration of water and fertilizer, and to popularize and apply such green prevention and control techniques as agricultural prevention, biological prevention and physical prevention and control according to different crops and pests, so as to promote the integration of unified control and green prevention and control.
Yang lisheng, deputy director of the department of crop management under the ministry of agriculture and rural affairs, said that since 2015, the country has carried out a campaign to achieve zero growth in fertilizer and pesticide use by 2020, with obvious results.
On the one hand, fertilizer and pesticides are used less. In 2017, pesticide use decreased for three consecutive years and fertilizer use decreased for two consecutive years, achieving the target of action three years ahead of schedule. On the other hand, the utilization rate of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has increased. In 2017, the utilization rate of fertilizers and pesticides was 37.8 percent and 38.8 percent, both of which were 2.2 percentage points higher than in 2015, making the achievements hard-won.
'this is a phased result,' he said. 'it will take hard work to consolidate it and continue to push it forward.'
Benefiting from the national strategy of this round of green agriculture, leading enterprises in the agricultural sector have also ushered in significant development opportunities.
Agriculture is generally regarded as a low-tech industry, but it is not, bai ying, CEO of Kim jong UN group, told China business news. For new fertilizers to be developed successfully, to truly suit China's "soil conditions", they must rely on core technologies. The core technology and service mastered by the enterprise will be the decisive factor to win the market in the future.
He said that farmers are the most simple and practical group, new fertilizer can win the trust of farmers, the key is to look at the bad use, can increase income. For farmers, the most concern is not price, but cost performance, or input-output ratio. "New fertilisers with high technology cost more to develop than conventional fertilizers, but these costs will eventually be absorbed in improving crop quality and income. Farmers' planting ideas are also improving, and new fertilizer has not been accepted passively. I'm willing to spend more money because I can increase my income.
After China's agricultural industry experienced the era of compound fertilizer 1.0 and slow release fertilizer 2.0, now it is ushering in the era 3.0. Ms. Bai said that in a few years, environmentally friendly new fertilizers would become the entry threshold for the 3.0 era. This is a major trend of The Times, without transformation, deformation, will be eliminated.
"Zero fertilizer growth" has given new life to compost
For thousands of years, China's agriculture has maintained a sustained and stable development through interplanting, waste utilization and combination of planting and breeding. Compost was widespread in rural China until the 1960s. Until the 1980s, organic fertilizer accounted for about 50 percent of total fertilizer use in China. However, in the past 30 years, excessive dependence on fertilizer, separation of planting and breeding, loss of rural labor force and other factors led to the gradual withdrawal of traditional rural compost from public view, and the proportion of organic fertilizer in total fertilizer decreased to about 20% at present.
In fact, many sources of raw materials can be used for composting, including straw, livestock manure, by-products of grain processing, cake pulp, urban sludge, kitchen waste and other organic waste. In recent years, as agricultural production and breeding separation is very prominent, the resource utilization rate of these organic wastes is not high.
As a result, on the one hand, land is degraded in the absence of organic fertilizer; On the other hand, large amounts of organic waste are not effectively treated and utilized, causing pollution of the environment, especially water bodies.
The large amount of organic waste is not used, which not only causes the waste of resources, but also becomes the source of pollution. Data show that about 30 percent (more than 200 million tons) of China's crop straws are directly burned, wasting nutrients and causing serious air pollution. In addition, many large-scale farms are over-concentrated, and the separation of planting and breeding and the treatment of fecal and urine have become major constraints on the sustainable development of the breeding industry. Once these organic wastes are fully utilized, there will be huge industrial space.
According to industry estimates, through the development of circular agriculture and "waste", each year 4 billion tons of organic waste to produce about 1 billion tce (about a quarter of the total energy consumption of China), 10 million tons of feed (1/10) of the forage yield and 55 million tons of fertilizer (pure nutrients and fertilizer amount), the whole industry chain potential output can reach 150 billion yuan of above.
In the composting process, especially in the city kitchen waste, can not be separated from the compostable plastic bags.
Basf produced the grainy ecovio? Is it compostable and biodegradable basf polymer ecoflex? , and the composition of polylactic acid (PLA) from corn or other sugar crops such as cassava. It is a high quality and versatile polymer. Ecovio has some bio-based ingredients, which have been certified as compostable materials, mainly used in the production of biodegradable film, biodegradable garbage bag, packaging materials, etc., required for agriculture and horticulture.
It is understood that in Europe, several countries, including Germany, are using ecovio compostable plastic bags.
Building a closed-loop industrial chain of compost requires cooperation from multiple parties, such as government guidance and coordination during the recycling and disposal stages, the person in charge said. Basf is committed to sustainability in China: organic waste (kitchen waste) collected using ecovio's compostable garbage bags can be converted into valuable compost without landfill disposal.
Since 2014, basf, in cooperation with green point, a social organization for environmental protection, has carried out a garbage classification project of "throwing kitchen waste into bags" in some residential communities in guangzhou, urging residents to participate in organic garbage classification and using certified compostable garbage bags for collection and composting. In 2016, 4,500 families participated in the project, fully reflecting its purpose of serving residents and improving the environment.
It's worth noting that an important and useful application of ecovio is mulch. Basf has done a lot of experiments in xinjiang, where ecovio biodegradable mulch has yet to be commercialized. The official said the commercialization of ecovio biodegradable mulch is expected to be supported by the government to provide incentives to farmers. The reason is that at present, the raw material price of PE mulch is only a quarter of that of biodegradable mulch.
One-off costs are not the measure of everything, and the costs and costs associated with the whole process of farmers using PE film are calculated, the official said. For example, the costs of cleaning PE film, disposal of waste that meets official standards, and disposal of PE film that has been contaminated. In contrast, certified biodegradable membranes can be ploughed directly into the field after harvesting. This has not yet been reflected in various Chinese government-subsidized agricultural projects, so farmers are reluctant to spend a little more on biodegradable mulch. In addition, there is no reference soil biodegradation standard in China. It is therefore harder to compare the pros and cons of the two approaches.
Although the recycling of plastics is of great benefit to the environment, the used PE mulch is seriously damaged and difficult to be recycled unless it consumes a large amount of scarce resources such as water and energy, thus causing extensive white pollution to the soil. According to the investigation and study, the pollution rate (level) of mulch reaches 70% to 90%. Mulch thickness is a key factor of pollution rate. The thinnest membrane (less than 25, for example) is the most heavily polluted, which is difficult to remove, recycle or recycle. Mechanical recycling is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, biodegradable mulch is the preferred solution.
Because the government forced farmers in completely clean up after the harvest fields of PE film, considering China's film manufacturers do not necessarily provide farmers with according to the regulation for more than 10 microns thickness of membrane, the existing film thickness is only 5 microns, and the thickness of this film may not be completely clear, there must be a residual film scattered in the fields. As a result, biodegradable solutions will be a big trend, but farmers will not be able to get the government subsidy programs associated with them.